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In the literary work, The Metamorphoses, a narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, the chthonic Medusa is vindicated under the figure of a beautiful maiden, “the jealous aspiration of many suitors” and priestess of the temple of Athena,

but when she was raped by the “Lord of the Sea,” Poseidon, in the same temple, the enraged goddess transformed the young girl’s beautiful hair into snakes.

In most versions of the literary story, the monstrous Medusa was pregnant by Poseidon when she was beheaded in her sleep by the hero Perseus, who had been sent for her head by King Polydectes of Seriphos. With the help of Athena and Hermes, who gave him the winged sandals, Hades’ helmet of invisibility, a sword and a mirrored shield, the hero went to visit the Grayas to be told where the cave of the gorgons was located. Finally Perseus fulfilled his mission. The hero killed Medusa by approaching her without looking directly at her but by observing the reflection of the gorgon in the shield to avoid being petrified. His hand was being guided by Athena and so he cut off her head. Medusa’s sisters sought him out for revenge, but Perseus escaped by becoming invisible thanks to Hades’ helmet. From Medusa’s neck sprouted her offspring: the winged horse Pegasus and the giant Chrysaor.


The courtship ritual begins with the male calling the attention of the female; he hits her with his shell to show her that he has it hard, the male can be very insistent with the shell hits to arouse interest, then the male starts the movements with his head; the female does not move her head and the male moves to sniff her tail and then the mating and mounting takes place; the male makes a clicking sound during courtship and mating.

The female digs a hole of up to 30 cm to deposit the eggs. In the wild they lay 5 to 15 eggs and in captivity they can lay up to 8 eggs depending on the fertility of the female, and can lay up to two clutches in a year, but all eggs hatch in September. In captivity they are capable of producing eggs at any time during the year.

They are usually buried in a nest in the ground. However, some authors note that locals in Panama have observed eggs laid in leaf litter on the forest floor.


Water, earth, fire and air, for many ancient doctrines, were the basic constituents of matter and explained the behavior of nature. The model remained in force until modern science began to unravel the elements and chemical reactions.

In Western culture, the origin of the theory of the four elements is found in the pre-Socratic philosophers and lasted through the Middle Ages until the Renaissance, profoundly influencing European culture and thought. The states of matter, according to modern science and, to a lesser extent, also the periodic table of the elements and the concept of combustion (fire) can be considered successors of those early models.  

China for its part enunciated slightly different elements still used in traditional Chinese medicine: earth, water, fire, metal and wood, understood more as different types of energy in a state of constant interaction and flow with each other, as opposed to the Western notion that relates them to the different manifestations of matter.



In the 17th century, aesthetics gave the necessary support to the autonomy of the artistic fact, starting a new cycle in the history of art. Today we call it modern art. The art was moving away from the political, religious, and social. It began to search for its own identity. Until then, what was craftsmanship began to be considered art.

According to the principles of Sturm und Drang, the essence of art is beauty, the essence of religion is the Gift and the essence of philosophy is truth.

Each represents moments in the spiritual evolution of the individual. Schiller draws a line of union between art, play and life. This union occurs because art, which is structurally related to play, manages to harmonize rational and sensitive aspects of the individual. Art makes it possible to play with beauty, and it is in this play that the high point of its humanity is to be found. But this play with beauty is not entirely intelligible; it has ceased to have the beautiful as an ideal. Part of the thesis concludes that beauty cannot be explained in psychological terms.

Beauty places the mind of the beholder in a middle ground in which, free from the law of the understanding, it is not under any coercion whatsoever. We find beautiful, that whose form is interwoven with our feelings and whose life takes shape in our understanding.

The transformation in aesthetics can be observed in the rupture with imitation as the essence of art. German romanticism does not examine art from the point of view of imitation, but from the subjective perspective expressed in the artistic work. The aesthetics transmitted by Hegel does not focus on imitation, opening the concept of art to other cultures. However, this identifies art and its authentic value with the expression of subjectivity.

In this way he understands that Germanic art must be ideal and not focused on nature. Instead of looking to nature, other cultures found in human interiority their inspiration. They did not seek to represent it, but only to represent their own spirit. Hegel argues that artistic beauty cannot be reduced to an imitation of nature, for the beauty of art belongs to the mind and only the mind is capable of truth. It is the mind that perceives beauty in creations, because only the mind discovers subjective truth. The truth of the human being’s own conception in his artistic manifestations.

Therefore, to be beautiful that something has to be a product of the mind. And the beautiful mind is that which is close to its own essence. The one that has reached the initial point of its creation… Where your childhood resides.

Abate Bussoni for Artnobel magazine Nº18

The genie must come out of the lamp

Where is the genie? That is to say, where is our genius, where does it hide, when does it appear, when do you perceive it, have you not yet noticed it?

Genius is an innate, original force, developed in environments fertilized with positive emotions.

A formal disposition is not enough, but an education, an environment, a practice, and something essential is necessary. The resolute determination to exploit our genius.

We must not create the impression that genius can be explained entirely causally. But what are the characteristics of genius? There is one important one. Genius

breaks the rules, creating new ones.

The one who lacks genius cannot take a step without the help of rules and norms. He can never jump over the marked conduit or break it with the audacity of the daredevil, to creatively find for himself a new procedure.

Abate Bussoni